Bitcoin, the first and most popular cryptocurrency
Ethereum, the blockchain that is the Web 3.0. Currently the most advanced blockchain out there.
Litecoin is an early fork of Bitcoin. Litecoin is the silver to Bitcoin's gold.
Ripple is a USA company behind the XRP cryptocurrency. XRP was originally intended as a layer for settlements across borders between banks - a kind of SWIFT replacement.
Cardano is the technology platform running the ADA cryptocurrency. Like many others, it promises to be the "Ethereum killer".
Stellar Lumens, originally a fork or Ripple (XRP) is today a completely different technology. It supports token creation, but not smart contracts or advanced logic.
Dash is a cryptocurrency which was created by forking Litecoin. It offers private (opt-in) and instant transactions.
Monero is one of the rare truly private cryptocurrencies. Both transactions and account balances are hidden on the Monero blockchain, which guarantees privacy.
Qtum is an intermediary blockchain designed for interoperability and communication between other blockchains. Qtum is managed and developed by the Singapore-based Qtum Foundation, and their main business model is helping companies implement decentralized applications. Qtum combines the robustness of Bitcoin Core and the versatility of the Ethereum Virtual Machine to produce a stable but flexible communication layer between the blockchains.
Verge, a fast and cheap cryptocurrency with a focus on privacy.
Ubiq is a "stable fork" of Ethereum. It's designed to be more conservative with implementing upgrades and new features due to security while still retaining compatibility with Ethereum software.
Peercoin is one of the first Proof of Stake coins.
Stratis is envisioned as blockchain-as-a-service for companies and with support for C# applications.
Status Network Token is the token powering some of the operations in the Status Network. For now, you can use it to buy an ENS domain for yourself so people can send you messages and cryptocurrency to addresses like NAME.stateofus.eth instead of 0xbE2B28F870336B4eAA0aCc73cE02757fcC428dC9, but soon the Status app will have staking and voting abilities powered by SNT.
Augur (REP) is a system of prediction markets and REP is their native currency. A prediction market is basically a casino for anything - you can make any assumption and take bets on whether or not it'll happen. Political elections, weather disasters, roulette spins, baby names, anything goes.